# Roman Numerals - Laws, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you consider numbers currently, the first of all that pops in your head is the decimal method we utilize everyday. This method, however, is not the only fashion to portray numericals. There are many approaches used by various cultures around the world that use all sorts of characters. One such system is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numbers have become a method of expressing numericals using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. It remained throughout the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still educated in school, that is possibly why you have come across this post.

Today, we are gonna to check out Roman numbers, what they are, how they function, and how to change Roman numerals to normal numbers.

## What Are Roman Numbers?

First, let's check a quick look at the history of Roman numerals. Roman numericals were first used by the ancient Romans, as you may have expected from the name. They were employed in multiple aspects of the Roman world, consisting of business, architecture, and even warfare.

Presently, its widespread use is primarily due to aesthetic reasons. You may have observed Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in movie sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman number system consist of numericals utilizing a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are blended to form groups that portray numbers. Seven letters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. You can then blend these numericals to portray any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Although the decimal system is established on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are based on cumulative and subtractive principles. This refers that a Roman numeral's numeric values are founded on the sum of the values of its particular parts. One more key difference is that the decimal method is established on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numerals are established on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's take a look at a few hands-on examples of Roman numbers.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades back in 2008. If we look at the number in the name, we see it has a V in it. This is because the number 5 in Roman numerals is represented by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Therefore, we grasp that this is the 4th to enter in the series using the properties we will discuss further ahead.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the latest to enter the original trilogy. Observing the value represented, it contains a V ensued by an I. Therefore, we will add a 1 to the value of V, that is 5, letting us know this Star Wars movie is the 6th entry in the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is crucial to comprehend the numeric value of all the characters. To guide make this process easy, here is a chart with all Latin letters with defined numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Transform from Roman Numerals to Decimal Numbers

Considering we have the convenient table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that data to transform numbers back and forth quickly. Following these steps, you will change these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numerals to Decimal Numericals

To change Roman numerals to decimal numericals, we will utilize the cumulative and subtractive principles we went through.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman number to its right is lesser in value, then sum the both values.

If the Roman number to its right is more in value, subtract the Roman numeral on the right out of the Roman numeral to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this process until you reach the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's see how you can change Roman numerals with a some examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, that is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Since 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the both values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and get 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we add the two values and we find 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 75, we sum the both values and we find 76.

We halt here at the end of the Roman numeral group. Therefore, the Roman number LXXVI is equivalent to the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman number MCMIII.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Since 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value refers to 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 1900, we sum the both values and the result is 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and we find 1903.

Since we have reached the end of the Roman number group, we halt here with our result. Thus, the Roman numeral MCMIII is equivalent to the decimal number 1903.

With this data and a some practice, you will convert Roman numerals to decimal numbers like an expert!

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